Thursday, August 22, 2019
Descriptive Essay What do I do with my leisure time? Well thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a funny question, because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much of it. When I get some extra time I enjoy flying with my good friend Sam. Since Sam is teaching me how to fly, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to share all the wonderful and majestic views with you. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing like a little adrenaline rush at the end of the day. Before we get in the plane, we walk around it, check the oil, the tire pressure and climb up on the wing and open the gas cap on both wings to make sure there is enough fuel. We check the gauges to make sure they work; they always do but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all part of inspecting the plane. Once we are done with our preflight inspections we untie the plane and remove the chucks from under the tires. Then we get into the small cockpit. Then we adjust our green leather seats to the proper place, where the seat is comfortable for each one of us; since we do want to be comfortable when flying. The first thing that we do is grab the yoke(the steering wheel) and turn it left and right, and forward and back, to make sure the flight controls are free and correct. When all of that is complete we are ready to turn on the power. Sam turns on the master switch and all the electronics and avionics come on with a beeping or ringing noise. The dashboard looks like a Christmas tree all lit up. Next the key goes in the ignition. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when I have to turn the key past the right and left magneto position to start the propeller. Then the propeller goes around a couple of times, which sounds like an oversized fan being turned on, and the plane has been started. He then adjusts his gauges and we put on our head phones. As I put on my headphones I can hear other people talking on the radio. We then tune into the common traffic advisory frequency and we taxi for take-off. In order to take off properly, you have to take off into the wind; so we watch the flag to see which way the wind is blowing. That helps you to determine which runway to use and the direction we will be heading. Then we head to the runway for take-off. Once we are lined up with the proper runway he gives me the nod to let me know we are getting ready for take-off. I let him know that we are ready to go by giving him thumbs up for good luck and a great big cheesy smile. Then he gives the plane full throttle; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the sound of the plane is at full blast. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the fun starts. When our airspeed is around sixty MPH he pulls back on the yoke and we start to leave the smooth landing strip starting towards our beautiful destination. We usually climb out around 400 feet per minute; passing all the beautiful tree tops. On a clear day in about five minutes if we take off from Millville airport, we can see all the wonderful Atlantic City lights in one direction. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll also be able to see Philadelphia and Delaware too. When itÃ¢â¬â¢s a clear day, preferably almost time for sunset, we usually like to fly over the water. We always get the best views in the world that way of the sunset. Usually that day IÃ¢â¬â¢ll bring my camera so I can get some outstanding pictures; I could probably sell those pictures. The unbelievable colors from the water and the sun, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just priceless. When itÃ¢â¬â¢s a cloudy day we will try to fly up to the clouds and find an opening to fly above the clouds. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the altimeter reads 5000 feet, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when I know we reached the place I enjoy the most. You just canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine the beauty in the clouds until youÃ¢â¬â¢ve experienced it yourself. No words really can describe the views. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s my favorite part, not that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy the whole ride, but it is absolutely the most majestic place in the sky, towering clouds everywhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost like looking at snowy mountains. He will usually get on the radar at this point since we canÃ¢â¬â¢t really see anything around us but clouds. This way we can keep track of every other plane around us. Meanwhile, we are all telling each other over the radio how wonderful the views are. As we continue to take in our unbelievable views we notice itÃ¢â¬â¢s starting to get late and we are in need to get fuel also. As we come to the end of our plane ride, we start to head back. On our way back down from the majestic clouds we happen to have a few geese flying parallel with us. They were soaring thru the clouds and all around us. We call into the traffic advisory to make sure the runway is clear for our landing. They let us know we are all clear to make a landing. Then we circle the airport, so we can line up with the runway and get ready for our landing. We then start to descend from our majestic trip up to the clouds; we are coming in fast. We start to see the beautiful tree tops again. We hit the landing strip, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a little on the bumpy side, then it starts to smooth out. Then we start to slow down and come to a crawl. We then drive the plane slowly to our parking spot where we park the plane. Then we begin to shut the plane down. We turn the propellers off and all the electronics and avionics off. We then adjust our seats and get out of the plane. Now is the hard part of the whole day. We both have to push the plane back into its parking spot. Then we tie down the plane and put chucks under the wheels. We do this, so if a gust of wind comes through it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t blow the plane away; since that does happen. I would have to say flying is best for leisure time, since this is what I enjoy doing the most when it comes to having leisure time. When it comes to leisure, you are supposed to do something you enjoy doing. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I fly for leisure, since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big adrenaline rush for me but it also is very relaxing for me at the same time. So if you ever want to take a ride with Sam and I just let me know and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get to see all the wonderful things we have seen and some.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Economics 247 Assignment 2 Version A Essay Economics 247 Assignment 2 Version A This assignment has a maximum total of 100 marks and is worth 10% of your total grade for this course. You should complete it after completing your course work for Units 6 through 10. Answer each question clearly and concisely. 1. In perfect competition, one result of the model was that there were no economic profits in the long run. In a monopoly, the firm typically earns a positive economic profit. Why is there this difference? The lack of barriers to entry will allow competitors to enter the market unil economic profit is zero. These firms are price takers, and they cannot affect prices because their demand curve is horizontal.(4 marks) 2. Assume that a single firm in a pure competitive industry has a fixed cost of $6500 and variable costs as indicated in the table below. a. Calculate the TC, AFC, AVC, ATC, and MC columns for this firm. (5 marks) Total Output TVC TC AFC AVC ATC MC 00 0 600 70,000 1000 76000 1400 81000 1800 87000 2200 90000 2600 93000 2800 96000 3000 100000 3100 110000 b. Explain the concepts of economies and diseconomies of scale, and describe the underlying reasons why both occur. (4 marks) 3. At its current level of production, a profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market receives $12.50 for each unit it produces, and it faces an average total cost of $10. At the market price of $12.50 per unit, the firms marginal cost curve crosses the marginal revenue curve at an output level of 1000 units. What is the firms current profit? What is likely to occur in this market and why?(4 marks) P=12.5 TR=P*Q = 12.5 * 1000 = 12500 TC=ATC*Q = 10 * 1000 = 10000 Profit=TR-TC = 12500 10000 = +2500 Profit is positive, but for perfectly competitive markets there will be no profits at all in the long-run, so in this markets new firms will enterÃ market attracted by profits thus increasing market supply and reducing equilibrium price till it reaches close to P=$10, consequently leading to zero economic profits in long-run. For lower price this firm will be pressed to reduce output a bit for new P=MR=MC equilibrium. 4. a.Why would a firm in a perfectly competitive market always choose to set its price equal to the current market price? If a firm set its price below the current market price, what effect would this have on the market? (4 marks) The assumptions of perfect competition that matter here are that in perfect competition 1 every firm is so small compared to the market so as to have no effect on market price 2 everyone is aware of everybodys price. Now if you set a price lower than the market, you are only cutting your nose to spite your face since you would sell as much as a higher price. (Remember, how much you produce is determined by your MC and the output level you produce at is the minimum MC). Cutting the price to sell more also costs more to produce; you are worse off. If you set a price higher than market, noone will buy from you. Explain how a firm in a competitive market identifies the profit-maximizing level of production. When should the firm raise production, and when should the firm lower production? In a perfectly competitive market, all firms are assumed to be very small compared to the market. Now the price is set at the market level, and as a small firm you take it as given; you couldnt sell at a higher price since nobody would buy from you. Now in the long run, you should be at the minimum point of your cost curve, ensuring you make just normal profits. The price is your MR and at the minimum point of your AC curve your MC cuts it: MC=MR and AC=AR. If the market price is higher than this, new entrants will sniff the opportunity created by super normal profits and the market supply curve shifts right/up, reducing price until there are no more super ormal profitsÃ to be earned. If market price is lower, then firms are making losses, some exit and supply curve shifts left driving price up. In equilibrium, each firm is producing at the minmum point of the AC, where MC=MR=P. Hence the firm temporarily raises production when Pmin AC and makes supernormal profits until new entrants drive price back down; or lowers production temporarily when P
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Understanding Business Concepts Unit Number Title: U35 Business and Entrepreneurship Assignment 1 Sit 1: Understanding Business Concepts Table of Contents Task A: Answer 1 Answer 1.1 Answer 2 Answer 2.1 Answer 3 Answer 3.1 Answer 3.2 Answer 4 Task B: Answer 1. Answer 2 Answer 3 References List of Figures Figure 1 SWOT Diagram Task A: Answer 1 Opportunity cost is the next highest valued alternative to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. It is the loss of potential gain from the second best alternative, once a business decision is taken. Answer 1.1 A Motor vehicle company has taken a decision to start a new production line for its vehicles with the aim of green technology. It has two options, option one is to start producing a fully electric vehicle while option two is to start producing a hybrid vehicle. If the company decides to start producing a fully electric vehicle then the opportunity cost will be the cost of producing a hybrid vehicle. A utility company supplying electricity is going to build a new power plant. It has two options, first option building a power plant using nuclear power while the second option building a power plant using natural gas. If the utility company decides to build the new power plant using natural gas, then its opportunity cost will be the cost of building a power plant using nuclear power. (Henderson, n.d.) Answer 2 Double entry system delineate that every transaction will be registered at least into two separate accounts in a companys accounting system. A simple example is shown in table below: (Averkamp, n.d.) Answer 2.1 There is more than one advantage for using a double entry system. Some of these are: There is an arithmetic check on the companys bookkeeping records as for every debit amount there is always a corresponding credit amount. This means that the total debit entries must be matched with the same amount of credit entries. Better understanding of a companys financial situation. It shows the true profit or loss of the company more clearly at any given time. Financial statements will be prepared much easier when double entry system is in place. Examples of these statements are: balance sheet, income statement and cash flow. This system also helps in detecting and reducing accounting errors. (Advantages and disadvantages of double entry book-keeping, n.d.) Answer 3 The balance sheet is one of the most important financial statements within a company. The balance sheet is a snapshot at a single point in time, (usually at the end of month or year), which gives investors an accurate and reliable picture of a companys financial position, what it actually owns and owes. The following formula is followed in a balance sheet: Assets = Liabilities + Capital (Shareholders Equity) (Balance Sheet, n.d.) Answer 3.1 The main purpose of the balance sheet is that it figures up the companys economic resources, obligations and shareholders equities at any point in time. It displays how the resources contributed by the shareholders and money lenders are used in the business. The term balance sheet is derived from the fact that at any given time, assets must be equal to liabilities plus capital hence the two sides of the balance sheet must balance out each other. On the other hand the balance has some drawbacks too. One of which is that the true value of the assets are not reflected on the balance sheet. Historical costs of the assets will not reflect the true market value since these assets may have increased or depreciated in value. Another drawback is that certain assets value are estimated thus does not reflect the true economic situation of the business. (Balance Sheet, n.d.) Answer 3.2 Two important financial statements complimenting the balance sheet are the Cash Flow statement and the Profit Loss statement. Cash flow is comprised of three components which displays the cash generated and used by the company for any given period of time. These components are operations, investing and financing activities. Operation activities measure the income and expenditure caused by the core business operations of a company. It reflects how much profit is generated from the companys products and services. Investing activities reflect the investment in purchasing of new assets such as property, land and equipment. Financing activities reflect changes in debts, loans and dividends paid. These include issue of shares and/or bonds, re-purchase of shares and/or bonds, interest paid to bond-holders. (What is a Cash Flow Statement, n.d.) The Profit Loss statement displays a companys income, costs and expenditure for a particular period of time. Normally this statement is issues quarterly or yearly depending on the companys size and directors preference. The purpose of this statement is to show investors whether the company has made or lost money during the specific period indicated in the statement. The Profit Loss statement gives a good account of the companys capabilities to increase profits and reduce costs. (Profit Loss Statement, n.d.) Answer 4 The following is an abstract from the regulations of the Malta Financial Services Authority: A private company is a company that must, by its memorandum or articles: restrict the right to transfer its shares; prohibit any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company; The minimum authorised share capital is Ã¢â ¬1,164.69. The maximum number of shareholders is fifty Must have at least one director A public company is a company which does not qualify as a private company. A public company may offer shares or debentures to the public but it may not issue any form of application for its shares or debentures unless the company is registered and the issue is accompanied by a prospectus. The minimum authorised share capital of a public company is EUR 46,587.47.There is no maximum number of shareholders in the case of a public company. Must have at least 2 directors In the case of a public company not less than 25%, and in the case of a private company not less than 20%, of the nominal value of each share taken up shall be paid up on the signing of the memorandum. Every Company must have a company secretary and hold an Annual General Meeting. (A Guide to the Registration of Companies, n.d.) Task B: Answer 1. The acronyms of PEST and SWOT analysis are as follows: PEST analysis Political, Economic, Social and Technological analysis. SWOT analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis. Answer 2 PEST is a business measuring tool to understand the business environment growth or decline before setting up a new business or expanding an established business. It is an investigation for reviewing the external environment factors for political, economic, social and technological influences. Political Environment These are all those factors related to and executed by a government. A change in government can bring a change in laws, regulations, policies and taxes which can have an impact on the business environment. Since Malta is part of the European Union, EU regulations and new member states can have an impact on the business environment. Economic Environment This is mainly the financial system fluctuations that occur from time to time with general booms and slumps in the economy activity. A change in unemployment, interest rates and customer purchasing power can cause these fluctuations. Social Environment This is the influence on the business environment which its effects depend on religious, cultural and social trends. These effects can be either positive or negative. Education, lifestyles, career trends and demographics have influence on the social environment. If a decision from a business company have a huge impact which goes against the societal norms, it may face negative publicity and protests. Technological Environment This gathers all the technical aspects of the business environment such as automation, technology awareness, progress, research and development. Technical environment aspects can have an impact on the cost and quality of the business production. (External Environment Theory PEST Analysis, n.d.) SWOT analysis is a matrix analysis of the internal strengths and weaknesses of a company against identification of external opportunities and threats. It helps a company to uncover and exploit opportunities while understanding the weaknesses to eliminate threats. Workshop sessions and brainstorming sessions are two useful ways of completing the SWOT analysis while involving personnel from your own company. A sample table of the SWOT Matrix is shown in figure 1 below. Figure 1 SWOT Diagram Strengths are the resources and capabilities of a business or a project within a company which are used to gain a competitive advantage over other competitors. Examples of strengths are: Reputation, Superior product performance, Unique selling points, Strong brand names. Weaknesses are the absence of certain strengths on which your competitor may take an advantage. Examples of weaknesses are: Weak brand name, Limited budget, Limited personnel, Opportunities are external elements that can uncover new opportunities where a company can exploit its advantages for profit and growth. Examples of opportunities are: Changes in technology, Change in government policies on a particular area, Unfulfilled customer needs, Local events. Threats are changes in external environment and opportunities taken by other companies which can have a competitive advantage over your business. Examples of threats are: Appearance of alternative products, New legislations, Retention of key staff, Negative publicity. (SWOT Analysis, n.d.) Answer 3 SWOT analysis for Bank of Valletta plc. Task C References A Guide to the Registration of Companies. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 15, 2014, from MFSA: https://registry.mfsa.com.mt/otherPDFs/ROCGuide.pdf Advantages and disadvantages of double entry book-keeping. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 12, 2012, from Figurate Ltd Chartered Management Accounts: http://www.figurate.co.uk/2007/07/03/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-double-entry-bookkeeping/ Averkamp, H. (n.d.). Accounting Basics (Explanation). Retrieved 1 12, 2014, from Accounting Coach: http://www.accountingcoach.com/accounting-basics/explanation/5 Balance Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 14, 2014, from Investopedia: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/balancesheet.asp External Environment Theory PEST Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 16, 2014, from The Times 100 Business Case Studies: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/business-theory/external-environment/pest-analysis.html#axzz2qb3hjMJw Henderson, D. R. (n.d.). Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved January 10, 2014, from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/OpportunityCost.html Profit Loss Statement. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 14, 2014, from Investopedia: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/plstatement.asp SWOT Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 18, 2014, from Businessballs: http://www.businessballs.com/swotanalysisfreetemplate.htm What is a Cash Flow Statement. (n.d.). Retrieved 01 14, 2014, from Investopedia: www.investopedia.com/articles/04/033104.asp
A History Paper-Rock Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll Many people and many styles of music influenced Rock and Roll. The styles included Blues, Jazz, Gospel, Bluegrass, Boogie-Woogie, and Rockabilly. Each was a major factor into the introduction of a new style of music called Rock Ã¢â¬ËNÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll. Popular music places a premium on accessibility, represents various meanings to boost both instant appeal and memorability - distinctive tunes, novel instrumental flourishes, danceable rhythms, repeated riffs - but its signal feature is melodic emphasis and great vocal gatherings. Popular music at the turn of the century came largely from musical theater - Broadway and Hollywood. Originally, popularized by traveling groups and sheet music sales, popular music really came into its own with the arrival of radio broadcasting, jukeboxes, 78 r.p.m recordings and other twentieth century technologies which continued into the Fifties. Hits from the first half of the 20th century were supplied by Tin Pin Alley that celebrated the boom years and Roaring Twenties and provided an escape from the Depression and two World Wars. Cole Porter, Hoagy Carmichael, Irving Berlin, George Gershwin, Rodgers and Hart, Jerome Kern left their imprint during "the Jazz Age." However, there were the long-forgotten hacks cashing in on the latest fads spewing out sentimental weepers and cute novelty numbers aimed at the bland tastes of American mainstream. Jazz and Ã¢â¬Å"boogie-woogieÃ¢â¬ of the Thirties moved popular music away from the light entertainment of the publishing houses toward a more exciting and dance oriented style that made the swing era a golden age. As the bigger bands died out and the star singers again grabbed the spot light the songwriters again found their services in demand. Without jazz driving it and Americans rebuilding their lives and starting baby booms people were too busy to waste time dancing. Popular music turned back to light sentimental songs and cute novelty music song by polished voices and backed by sweetly generic instrumentals. The Fifties were a good time to be a white middle class American These years brought an UN-thought of prosperity and confidence to Americans who barely remembered the Great Depression. Popular music of the early fifties mirrored the life of mainstream America: bland predictable and reassuring. Which didn't seem bad after the depre... ... England the rock capital of the world. The British Invasion of 1964 brought America's music - reinvented and revitalized - home, a new generation of rock fans was born. Rock now entered what is now known as its Classic Era. In conclusion this report has helped us understand the significance of Music in America. Also, the impact it has on music we listen too. Music is very much like a big chain reaction. Rock Ã¢â¬ËNÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll, much like music today, stood out and was in a way rebellious. Parents now hate Rap and we love it. People in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s loved Rock Ã¢â¬ËNÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll and parents hated it. This shows that maybe no matter how much older people deny it, the time gap and generation gap is not too far apart. Without Rock Ã¢â¬ËNÃ¢â¬â¢ Roll the World would without a doubt be changed. Any guess to that of which way would be a good one. Works Cited 1 Gass, Bryan "A History of Rock Music: The Rock and Roll Era" World Book. Ed. 6. 1994. 2 Jervey, A. J. " Rock Music Developments" World Book. Ed. 6. 1994. 3 Briss, Jake "A RockÃ¢â¬â¢n TimeÃ¢â¬ ComptonÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ed. 13. 1987. 4 Mack, Stacey "ROCKED AND ROLLIN" TIME to Rock round the Clock Nash Publishing, 1994.
Monday, August 19, 2019
What is a Hero? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In today's modern times we hear the word hero all of the time. The news media throws the term around as if it is an everyday word. What exactly is a hero? Who, or what, can be classified as heroic? The correct definition of the word hero is: One invested with heroic qualities in the opinions of others. That is a fine definition for books and intellectual minds. To the average person, however, a hero is much more. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To better understand what a heroic quality is it may be easier to describe what a hero is not. Nearly everyday on television people talk of athletes and celebrities as being heroes, but are they? To put it mildly, they are not heroes at all. Possibly role models, but for the most part, not in possession of heroic qualities. When Michael Jordan and Bruce Willis, by risking their lives, save an abandoned child from a typhoon they will possess the qualities to be called heroes in my opinion. Policemen and firemen are at times classified as heroes. Until they prove themselves they are just ordinary people. The title heroic is not given by occupation, rather by achievement. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã So what exactly is a hero? Parents are true heroes. Most parental units sacrifice time, money, love and everything else for their children. When times are tough good parents do all they can to make things better for their children. Mothers and fathers often work two jobs, late at night, or on weekends to provide for their kids. My mom is always there for me when I am sick, telling me she wishes she were the sick one. She also reassures me that she always has an extra kidney if I happen to need one. I personally view my parents as true heroes for all they do, have done, and will do. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A local hero emerged recently in Flint Police Officer Leslie Keely. Plainly put, Officer Keely gave his life, for us, the residents of Genesee County. Les Keely died while in the line of duty. Involved in a high-speed pursuit of a vehicle, Keely was killed when his cruiser was struck broadside by another police car, driven by a Michigan State Trooper. At that point in time, Officer Keely became an instant hero. He lost the most important thing in the world, his life, doing what he was paid to do, serve and protect the public.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
How Human Centric Computing Affects the Economy Our economy was taken by storm when the world of computers was introduced to large companies and businesses. It was like an unstoppable trend that everyone had to follow. If a company chose not to bring in mass computers for all employees, they lagged behind and were forgotten. The economy is about to experience a new wave of change. Human centric computing is on the verge of breaking out into the light. As of right now human centric computing lurks in the shadows, just waiting to be introduced to businesses, to governments, to our silicone valley, and tons of other related things. Human centric computing will allow people to interact with their computers more than use them. Instead of having to read instructions and other time wasting tasks, human centric computing will allow you to talk to your computer. All of your questions will be answered by talking to your computer and having it talk back to you. Instead of sorting through your computer searching for a file, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it be nice if you just asked your computer to find it, and it was found? Human centric computing is also about having computers skip steps for you. Instead of having to deal with B and C, it is essentially going from A to D. When using a computer these days, it can become frustrating and stressful when computers regularly crash on you. This new improvement to computers supposedly will end the horrid of most the crashes people experience. Whenever you go to the bank to make a transaction, you make sure its during open hours, you fill out a form pertaining to your objective, and wait in a long line. Human centric computing, in the future, should eliminate all this clutter and save a priceless amount of time. After planning a trip to a distant land, you first need to buy plane tickets, reserve a hotel room, and maybe research the area. If you are a businessperson working the heart of New York, you have absolutely no time to do all this. But if you asked your computer, I need the first available plane ticket to Taiwan on November 23, the time, a hotel, ECT.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Why We Need Policy It is important to recognize that to use high speed methods in vehicle pursuit can only have risks reduced by un-holding a standardized guide as to how to proceed with the least of harm. The use of policy is an important element in any delivery of social and care service. Codes of practice provide parameters as to what needs to be recorded, how actions are to be undertaken and to realize the inherent moral obligation to ensure the rights and dignity of all stakeholders (New Jersey Police Department, 2001). Though, to provide consistency in application and resolution of dilemmas it is critical that report forms have an integrated presentation so that they can be used across situations, and across levels of staffs. Present Policy Currently there are written policies existing in every police station in North America instigated by the National Institute for Justice (NIJ). However, these differ amongst agencies, which has resulted in the indetermination of how best to deliver best practices in police vehicle pursuit (Alpert, 1997). A standardized form of pursuit policy would allow for better comparisons across agencies, and to quantify practices (Department of Public Safety, 2000). Recommended Policy Changes Develop and monitor a system to record information about pursuit driving. This will include narrative and multi-media forms, such as video, webcam and when necessary mobile camera and video. Continuous review and revision where necessary of pursuit policies. The quality and direction of these documents need to be valid and relevant and respect the rights and welfare of all stakeholders. Provide ongoing pursuit-specific training that includes ethical debating and written observation techniques Provide training and supervision across policies to ensure staffs in critical thought, inclusive decision-making and consistent deliver of services. Cultivate a culture of disclosure, reflection and critical analysis of responsibility for pursuit-actions amongst staffs. This includes having a supervisor read through and deliberates as to the appropriateness of pursuit activities in afteraction reports). Emphasize and make salient the ongoing risks and dangers of pursuit to guard against complacency of safety issues across time and experience. Establish a minimum criteria to meet a low offense as compared to a high offence to determine when a decision be made to continue or to initiate pursuit of a suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s vehicle. Train to recognize when public endangerment outweighs a decision to pursue; for example with incidents of traffic congestion Provide categories (ranking of criminal activities) and risk standards (rated from low to high) that allow staffs to easily and rapidly make distinctions during a chase Create a chase matrix from category scales to provide a set of specific standards that aid decision-making as to whether to start or continue a pursuit. Ã Conclusion Police pursuit is a controversial issue in social discourse, due to the inherent dangers to police, the pursued and the public. Formulation of a policy that adequately provides categories of risks and standards, and emphasizes the severity of the offence to determine if a chase is initiated or continued, appears to be the way to insure a consistent high level of best practices in pursuit. Ultimately, policy must seek to limit pursuit to only the most violent felons whilst resulting in the least risk to the public. Tragedy of road collisions due to police vehicular pursuit highlights the critical need for such policy. References Alpert, G. (1997) Police Pursuit: Policies and Training. Series: NIJ Research in Brief. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/164831.txt Department of Public Safety (2000) Uniform Statewide Pursuit Policy. Retrieved November 8, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2007 from http://www.ct.gov/dps/cwp/view.asp?a=2151&q=294336 New Jersey Police Department (2001) Police Pursuit. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.state.nj.us/lps/dcj/agguide/vehpurs_2001.pdf